On the issue of the Irish border, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a position of withdrawal which will only come into force in the absence of effective alternative provisions before the expiry of the transition period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out. Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed.  It follows from the withdrawal agreement that British nationals who have been legally and continuously in Denmark for five years can apply for permanent residence in Denmark. Periods of residence that began before and during the transitional period are included in the calculation of a permanent residence fee. The right of permanent residence is not affected for those covered by the withdrawal agreement. UK nationals and EU citizens, family members of the United Kingdom or EU citizens and family members who are not from these two countries retain the right to stay in the host Member State (Article 13). The host Member State must not restrict or prevent persons from obtaining, retaining or losing the right of residence (Article 13). Persons with valid documents [necessary clarification] will not need an entry and exit visa or identical formalities and would not be allowed to enter or enter the host state without complications (Article 14). In the event that the host state “requires an entry visa for family members who join EU citizens or UK nationals after the end of the transitional period,” the host state is required to issue the visas required free of charge through an expedited procedure in appropriate institutions (Article 14). The agreement also covers the issuance of indeterminate residence permits during and after the transition period, as well as their restrictions. In addition, the rights of salaried and self-employed workers will be clarified and recognition and identification of professional qualifications will be made possible.
The withdrawal agreement also contains provisions for the United Kingdom to leave the Convention setting the status of European schools, with the United Kingdom bound by the Convention and accompanying regulations on accredited European schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e. at the end of the spring semester 2020-2021.  Once EU citizens with pre-determined status have accumulated five years of legal residence in the UK, they can apply for their resident status to be revalued to permanent status (Settled Status), which offers more rights and better protection. The withdrawal agreement provides for a transitional period until 31 December 2020, during which time the UK will remain in the internal market, to ensure the smooth flow of trade until a long-term relationship is concluded. If no agreement is reached by then, the UK will leave the single market without a trade deal on 1 January 2021. The withdrawal agreement is closely linked to a non-binding political declaration on future relations between the EU and the UK. The most important elements of the draft agreement are: The United Kingdom has similar agreements with the EEA-EFTA States (Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) and Switzerland. You can read that the withdrawal treaty does not require a physical presence in the host state at the end of the transitional period – temporary absences that do not affect the right of residence and prolonged absences that do not infringe the right of permanent residence are accepted. The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the political declaration and replaced the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” with respect to labour standards.
According to Sam Lowe, a trade fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the amendment excludes labour standards from dispute resolution mechanisms.  In addition, the